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. ID : 5550

International Law
()Malcolm N. Shaw
Международное публичное право
Cambridge
Cambridge University Press
2003
1431
ISBN0 521 82473 7
1
Так
This fifth edition of Malcolm Shaw's bestselling textbook on international law provides a clear, authoritative and comprehensive introduction to the subject, fully revised and updated to Spring 2003. Basically preserving the structure which made the previous edition so successful, a new chapter on Inter-state Courts and Tribunals considers the role of the International Court of Justice and the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea, and there is a new chapter on international humanitarian law. Also examined are arbitration tribunals and the role of international institutions such as the WTO in resolving conflicts. The prosecution of individuals for violations of international law is examined. Additional coverage of events in Kosovo and Iraq analyses the questions of humanitarian intervention and the role of the UN. Written in a clear and accessible style, setting the subject firmly in the context of world politics and the economic and cultural influences affecting it, this book remains a highly readable and invaluable resource for students and practitioners alike. The scope of the text makes this essential reading for students of international law, international relations and the political sciences. The book is also valuable to professionals and governmental and international civil servants.
Preface page xxiii
Tableofcases xxv
Table of treaties and selected other international
instruments lxviii
List of abbreviations cxli
1 The nature and development of international law 1
Law and politics in the world community 2
The role of force 4
The international system 5
The function of politics 11
Historical development 13
Early origins 14
The Middle Ages and the Renaissance 18
The founders of modern international law 22
Positivism and naturalism 24
The nineteenth century 26
The twentieth century 30
Communist approaches to international law 31
The ThirdWorld 38
2 International law today 42
The expanding legal scope of international concern 42
Modern theories and interpretations 48
Positive Law and Natural Law 48
New approaches 53
3 Sources 65
Custom 68
Introduction 68
The material fact 72
What is state practice? 77
Opinio juris 80
Protest, acquiescence and change in customary law 84
Regional and local custom 87
Treaties 88
General principles of law 92
Equity and international law 99
Judicial decisions 103
Writers 105
Other possible sources of international law 107
The International Law Commission 112
Other bodies 114
Unilateral acts 114
Hierarchy of sources and jus cogens 115
4 International law and municipal law 120
The theories 121
The role of municipal rules in international law 124
International law before municipal courts 128
The United Kingdom 128
Customary international law 129
Treaties 135
The United States 143
Other countries 151
Justiciability, act of state and related doctrines 162
Executive certi?cates 172
5 The subjects of international law 175
Legal personality – introduction 175
States 177
Creation of statehood 177
Self-determination and the criteria of statehood 183
Recognition 185
Extinction of statehood 186
The fundamental rights of states 189
Independence 189
Equality 192
Peaceful co-existence 193
Protectorates and protected states 194
Federal states 195
Sui generis territorial entities 201
Mandated and trust territories 201
Germany 1945 204
Condominium 206
International territories 207
Taiwan 211
The ‘Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus’ (TRNC) 212
The Saharan Arab Democratic Republic 213
Associations of states 214
Conclusions 217
Special cases 218
The Sovereign Order of Malta 218
The Holy See and the Vatican City 218
Insurgents and belligerents 219
National liberation movements (NLMs) 220
International public companies 223
Transnational corporations 224
The right of all peoples to self-determination 225
The establishment of the legal right 225
The de?nition of self-determination 230
Individuals 232
International criminal responsibility 234
International organisations 241
The acquisition, nature and consequences of legal
personality – some conclusions 241
6 The international protection of human rights 247
The nature of human rights 247
Ideological approaches to human rights in international law
249
The development of international human rights law 252
Some basic principles 254
Domestic jurisdiction 254
The exhaustion of domestic remedies rule 254
Priorities of rights 256
Customary international law and human rights 256
The United Nations system – general 257
The protection of the collective rights of groups
and individuals 262
Prohibition of genocide 262
Prohibition of discrimination 266
The principle of self-determination as a human right
269
The protection of minorities 273
Other suggested collective rights 280
The United Nations system – implementation 281
Political bodies – general 282
The Commission on Human Rights 283
Expert bodies established by UN organs 285
The Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of
Human Rights 285
The International Covenant on Economic, Social and
Cultural Rights 286
Expert bodies established under particular treaties 289
The Committee on the Elimination of Racial
Discrimination 289
The Human Rights Committee 292
The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination -
AgainstWomen 300
The Committee Against Torture 303
The Committee on the Rights of the Child 307
The Committee on the Protection of MigrantWorkers
309
Conclusions 310
The specialised agencies 312
The International Labour Organisation 312
The United Nations Educational, Scienti?c and Cultural
Organisation 315
7 The regional protection of human rights 319
Europe 319
The Council of Europe 319
The European Convention on Human Rights 321
The convention system 324
The European Social Charter 334
The European Convention for the Prevention of Torture
and Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment
337
The Council of Europe Framework Convention for the
Protection of National Minorities 340
The European Union 344
The OSCE (Organisation for Security and Co-operation in
Europe) 346
The CIS Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental
Freedoms 352
The Human Rights Chamber of Bosnia and
Herzegovina 353
The American Convention on Human Rights 354
The Banjul Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights 363
The Arab Charter on Human Rights 365
8 Recognition 367
Recognition of states 368
Recognition of governments 376
De facto and de jure recognition 382
Premature recognition 383
Implied recognition 384
Conditional recognition 387
Collective recognition 388
Withdrawal of recognition 388
Non-recognition 390
The legal effects of recognition 393
Internationally 393
Internally 393
The UK 394
The USA 404
9Territory 409
The concept of territory in international law 409
Territorial sovereignty 411
New states and title to territory 414
The acquisition of additional territory 417
Boundary treaties and boundary awards 417
Accretion 419
Cession 420
Conquest and the use of force 422
The exercise of effective control 424
Intertemporal law 429
Critical date 431
Sovereign activities (effectivit? es)432
The role of subsequent conduct: recognition, acquiescence
and estoppel 436
Conclusions 441
Territorial integrity, self-determination and sundry claims
443
The doctrine of uti possidetis 446
Beyond uti possidetis 449
International boundary rivers 451
The Falkland Islands 452
‘The common heritage of mankind’ 453
The polar regions 455
Leases and servitudes 459
10 Air law and space law 463
Air law 463
Theories 463
The structure 465
TheWarsaw Convention system 469
Unauthorised aerial intrusion and the downing of civilian
airliners 473
The law of outer space 479
The de?nition and delimitation of outer space 480
The regime of outer space 481
Telecommunications 486
11 The law of the sea 490
The territorial sea 493
Internal waters 493
Baselines 495
Bays 499
Islands 501
Archipelagic states 502
The width of the territorial sea 505
Delimitation of the territorial sea between states with
opposite or adjacent coasts 506
The juridical nature of the territorial sea 506
The right of innocent passage 507
Jurisdiction over foreign ships 511
International straits 512
The contiguous zone 515
The exclusive economic zone 517
The continental shelf 521
De?nition 523
The rights and duties of the coastal state 525
Maritime delimitation 527
Landlocked states 541
The high seas 542
Jurisdiction on the high seas 545
Exceptions to the exclusivity of ?ag-state jurisdiction 548
Right of visit 548
Piracy 549
The slave trade 550
Unauthorised broadcasting 550
Hot pursuit 551
Collisions 552
Treaty rights 552
Pollution 553
Straddling stocks 556
The international seabed 560
Introduction 560
The 1982 Law of the Sea Convention (Part XI) 561
The Reciprocating States Regime 563
The 1994 Agreement on Implementation of the Seabed
Provisions of the Convention on the Law of the Sea
565
The International Seabed Authority 566
Settlement of disputes 568
12 Jurisdiction 572
The principle of domestic jurisdiction 574
Legislative, executive and judicial jurisdiction 576
Civil jurisdiction 578
Criminal jurisdiction 579
The territorial principle 579
The nationality principle 584
The passive personality principle 589
The protective principle 591
The universality principle 592
Piracy 593
War crimes, crimes against peace and crimes against
humanity 594
Treaties providing for jurisdiction 597
Illegal apprehension of suspects and the exercise of
jurisdiction 604
The US Alien Tort Claims Act 607
Extradition 610
Extraterritorial jurisdiction 611
13 Immunities from jurisdiction 621
Sovereign immunity 621
The absolute immunity approach 625
The restrictive approach 628
Sovereign and non-sovereign acts 631
State immunity and violations of human rights 638
Commercial acts 640
Contracts of employment 646
Other non-immunity areas 648
The personality issue – instrumentalities and parts of the
state 649
The personality issue – immunity for government ?gures
655
Waiver of immunity 659
Pre-judgment attachment 661
Immunity from execution 662
The burden and standard of proof 666
Conclusion 667
Diplomatic law 668
The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, 1961
669
The inviolability of the premises of the mission 671
The diplomatic bag 676
Diplomatic immunities – property 679
Diplomatic immunities – personal 681
Waiver of immunity 687
Consular privileges and immunities: the Vienna Convention
on Consular Relations, 1963 688
The Convention on Special Missions, 1969 690
The Vienna Convention on the Representation of States in
their Relations with International Organisations of a
Universal Character, 1975 691
The immunities of international organisations 692
Internationally protected persons 692
14 State responsibility 694
The nature of state responsibility 696
The question of fault 698
Imputability 700
Ultra vires acts 702
State control and responsibility 704
Mob violence, insurrections and civil wars 705
Circumstances precluding wrongfulness 707
Invocation of state responsibility 713
The consequences of internationally wrongful acts 714
Cessation 714
Reparation 715
Serious breaches of peremptory norms (jus cogens) 720
Diplomatic protection and nationality of claims 721
The exhaustion of local remedies 730
The treatment of aliens 733
The relevant standard of treatment 734
Theexpropriationofforeignproperty 737
The property question 740
The nature of expropriation 740
Public purposes 742
Compensation 743
Bilateral investment treaties 747
Lump-sum agreements 749
Non-discrimination 751
The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency 751
15 International environmental law 753
State responsibility and the environment 760
The basic duty of states 760
The appropriate standard 762
Damage caused 765
Liability for damage caused by private persons 768
Prevention of transboundary harm from hazardous activities
768
The problems of the state responsibility approach 771
International co-operation 771
Atmospheric pollution 780
Ozone depletion and global warming 784
Outer space 790
International watercourses 791
Ultra-hazardous activities 795
Nuclear activities 796
The provision of information 798
The provision of assistance 799
Nuclear safety 801
Civil liability 801
Hazardous wastes 803
Marine pollution 806
Pollution from ships 806
16 The law of treaties 810
The making of treaties 815
Formalities 815
Consent 816
Consent by signature 817
Consent by exchange of instruments 818
Consent by rati?cation 819
Consent by accession 820
Reservations to treaties 821
Entry into force of treaties 831
The application of treaties 832
Third states 834
The amendment and modi?cation of treaties 837
Treaty interpretation 838
Invalidity, termination and suspension of the operation of
treaties 845
General provisions 845
Invalidity of treaties 846
Municipal law 846
Error 847
Fraud and corruption 848
Coercion 848
Jus cogens 850
Consequences of invalidity 850
The termination of treaties 851
Termination by treaty provision or consent 851
Material breach 853
Supervening impossibility of performance 855
Fundamental change of circumstances 855
Consequences of the termination or suspension of a treaty
857
Dispute settlement 858
Treaties between states and international organisations 858
17 State succession 861
Continuity and succession 865
Succession to treaties 871
Categories of treaties: territorial, political and other treaties
871
Succession to treaties generally 875
Absorption and merger 875
Cession of territory from one state to another 878
Secession from an existing state to form a new state or
states 878
‘Newly independent states’ 881
Dissolution of states 884
International human rights treaties 885
Succession with respect to matters other than treaties 889
Membership of international organisations 889
Succession to assets and debts 890
State property 891
State archives 897
Public debt 900
Private rights 905
State succession and nationality 907
Hong Kong 912
18 The settlement of disputes by peaceful means 914
Diplomatic methods of dispute settlement 918
Negotiation 918
Good of?ces and mediation 921
Inquiry 923
Conciliation 925
International institutions and dispute settlement 928
Regional organisations and the United Nations 928
The African Union (Organisation of African Unity) 930
The Organisation of American Statese 934
The Arab League 935
Europe 936
International organisations and facilities of
limited competence 938
19 Inter-state courts and tribunals 951
Arbitration 951
Judicial settlement 959
The International Court of Justice 959
The organisation of the Court 961
The jurisdiction of the Court 966
General 966
The nature of a legal dispute 969
Contentious jurisdiction 972
Article 36(1) 973
Article 36(2) 978
Sources of law, propriety and legal interest 983
Evidence 984
Provisional measures 987
Counter-claims 990
Third-party intervention 991
Remedies 994
Enforcement 996
Application for interpretation of a judgment 997
Application for revision of a judgment 997
Examination of a situation after the judgment 998
Non-appearance 999
The advisory jurisdiction of the Court 1000
The role of the Court 1004
The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea 1005
Proliferation of courts and tribunals 1011
20 International law and the use of force by states 1013
Law and force from the ‘just war’ to the United Nations
1013
The UN Charter 1017
‘Force’ 1019
‘Against the territorial integrity or political independence of
any state’ 1021
Categories of force 1022
Retorsion 1022
Reprisals 1023
The right of self-defence 1024
The protection of nationals abroad 1032
Conclusions 1034
Collective self-defence 1035
Force and self-determination 1036
Intervention 1039
CivilWars 1040
Aid to the authorities of a state 1042
Aidtorebels 1043
The situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
1044
Humanitarian intervention 1045
Terrorism and international law 1048
21 International humanitarian law 1054
Development 1054
The scope of protection under the Geneva Conventions system
1056
The conduct of hostilities 1063
Armed con?icts: international and internal 1068
Non-international armed con?ict 1072
Enforcement of humanitarian law 1076
Conclusion 1079
22 The United Nations 1082
The UN system 1082
The Security Council 1084
The General Assembly 1087
The Economic and Social Council 1091
The Trusteeship Council 1092
The Secretariat 1093
The specialised agencies 1095
Economic and ?nancial specialised agencies 1098
The peaceful settlement of disputes 1099
The League of Nations 1099
The United Nations system 1100
The Security Council 1101
The General Assembly 1105
The Secretary-General 1106
Peacekeeping and observer missions 1107
Conclusion 1117
The collective security system 1119
The Security Council 1119
Determination of the situation 1120
Chapter VII measures 1124
Measures not involving the use of force 1124
Measures involving the use of force 1133
The Use of force in non-enforcement situations 1138
Former Yugoslavia 1139
Somalia 1142
Rwanda 1144
Sierra Leone 1145
The Democratic Republic of the Congo 1146
The range of UN actions from humanitarian assistance to
enforcement – conclusions 1147
The Security Council, international law and the
International Court of Justice 1148
The role of the General Assembly 1151
The UN and regional arrangements and agencies 1154
23 International institutions 1161
Historical development 1161
Approaches to international institutions 1164
Institutions of a universal character 1166
The League of Nations 1166
The United Nations 1166
International economic organisations 1167
Regional institutions 1168
Europe 1168
The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation 1168
TheWestern European Union 1170
The Council of Europe 1171
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development 1172
The European Union 1172
The Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe
(OSCE) 1179
The Commonwealth of Independent States 1181
The American Continent 1182
The Arab League 1183
Africa 1183
Eastern Europe 1185
Asia 1185
Some legal aspects of international organisations 1186
Personality 1187
The constituent instruments 1193
The Powers of international institutions 1195
The applicable law 1198
The responsibility of international institutions 1199
Liability of member states 1201
The accountability of international institutions 1204
Privileges and immunitie 1205
Dissolution 1213
Succession 1214
Some useful international law websites 1216
Index 1225
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